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Vert. Zoology Midterm Reveiw
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Vertebrate Zoology Midterm Review: Things to Know

 

Chapter 1

 

-         Why study zoology?

-         Scientific Method

-         Physiological vs. Evolutionary Science

-         Experimental Method

-         Comparative Method

-         Evolution

-         Phylogeny

-         Pre-Darwinian Evolutionary thought

o       Lamarck

o       Lyell

-         Darwinian Evolution

o       Voyage of the Beagle

o       The five principals of Darwinian evolution

         The principals

         The observations

         The evidence

        Perpetual change

        Homology vs reconstruction

        Common descent

        Multiplication of species

        Adaptive radiation

        Gradualism

        Natural selection

        Microevolution

        Macroevolution

 

Chapter 2

 

-         Hierarchy of Animal Complexity

o       Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

-         Parenchyme

-         Metazoan body arrangement

o       Intracellular space

o       Extracellular space

o       Blood plasma

o       Interstitial fluid

-         Types of tissues

o       Epithelium

o       Connective

o       Muscular

o       Nervous

o       Blood

-         Body Plans

o       Animal symmetry

         Spherical

         Radial

         Bilateral

        Directional terminology

o       Medial, ventral, dorsal, etc

o       Patterns of Cleavage

         Blastomere

         Radial

         Spiral

o       Body Cavities

         Coelom

         Acoelomates

         Pseudocoelomates

o       Metamerism

o       Cephalization

 

Chapter 14

 

-         Lines of descent

-         Characteristics of Chordates

o       Bilateral

o       Notochord

o       Nerve chord

o       Pharyngeal pouches

o       Postanal tail

o       Segmented muscles

o       Ventral heart

o       Digestive system

o       endoskeleton

-         Monophyletic vs. polyphyletic vs. paraphyletic

-         Ancestry and evolution of the chordates

o       Where did we come from?

o       What groups lay our foundations

o       Tunicata

o       Cephalochordata

o       Vertebrata

         Characteristics of the subphylum (p254)

         Amphioxus

        Diagram with labels

        Know functions

        Advances from previous animals

        Position of amphioxus

         Earliest Vertebrates

        Ostracoderms

        Jawless vertebrates

        Jawed vertebrates

        Gnathostomes

        Placoderms

        Acanthodians

         Modern tetrapods and fishes

 

Chapter 15

 

            Ancestry and relationship of the major groups of fishes

 

-         lamprey and hagfish

-         cartilaginous fish

-         bony fish

-         ray fin fish

-         fleshy fish

o       lung fish

o       coelacanth

 

-         Jawless Fish

o       Characteristics of Agnatha (264)

o       Hagfish

o       Lamprey

 

-         Cartilaginous fish

o       Skates, sharks and rays- elastomobranchii

         Characteristics (heterocercal vs. homocercal)

         Placoid scales

 

-         Bony fish osteichthyes

o       Origin evolution and diversity

 

*Be able to label diagrams of the shark- external and internal morphology (structures)

 

Chapter 16

 

            Movement onto land

 

-         Tetrapod- what is it

-         When did movement onto land occur?

o       Evolution of terrestrial vertebrates

         Devonian

        Conditions

        Affect on tetrapods

        Structures that evolved (legs and lungs/ double circulation)

         Carboniferous radiation

        Lissamphibia

        Temnospondyls

        Salamanders, Frogs, and Caecilians

        Anura, Caudata, Apoda

o       Modern Amphibians- the three orders

         Basic characteristics of modern amphibians (287)

o       Apoda- basic characteristics and members

o       Urodela- basic characteristics and members

         Breeding

         Respiration

         Paedomorphosis

o       Salientia

         Major characteristics

         Habitats and distribution

         Reproduction

 

Be able to label a frog internally and externally diagram

 

Chapter 19

 

Mammals:

 

-         Importance of the nervous system

-         Size of the class

-         Adaptability benefits

-         Affect on other species

 

Origin and Relationship

 

-         Who were the pelycosaurs, therapsids, and cynodonts

-         When did the fist mammal appear

-         What were the mammals of the late Triassic

-         What are the basic characteristics of mammals (pg 338)

o       Covered with hair

o       Integument with glands

o       Skull organization

o       Mouth organization

o       Eyelids

o       Four limbs

o       Circulatory system

o       Respiratory system

o       Excretory system

o       Endothermic vs homeothermic

o       Internal fertilization

o       Mammary glands

 

Structural and functional adaptations of the Mammals

 

-         The skin: why is it important?

o       What is the epidermis

o       What is the dermis

o       How does hair form

         What is keratin

         What is pelage hair

         What is guard hair

         When does hair stop growing and why

         What is a molt

         What are vibrissae

o       Horns and Antlers

         What is a ruminant

         What is a true horn

         What is an antler

         What is velvet in a growing antler

         What is a rhinoceros horn

o       Glands

         What is a sweat gland

         What is the difference between and appocrine and an eccrine gland

         What is a scent gland

         What are sebaceous glands

         What is sebum

         What is a mammary gland

o       Food and Feeding

         How are teeth modified depending on the food resources used

         What is a trophic group

         What is a herbivore

        What is the difference between a browser and gnawer

        How do animals deal with digesting cellulose

        What is the purpose of a four chambered stomach

         What is a carnivore

        How do the teeth differ

        How does digestion differ

        How have carnivores affected herbivore evolution

         What is an omnivore

o       Migration

         What is migration

         What is a seasonal migration

         How is migration of mammals similar to birds

o       Echolocation

         What is it

         Which mammals can fly

         Why are bats and birds not usually in competition

         How are the bat ears modified for echolocation

o       Reproduction

         What is the mode of reproduction in most mammals

         What is the estrous cycle

         What is estrus

         What is a montreme, and how is reproduction accomplished and young cared for

         What is a marsupial, and how is reproduction accomplished and young cared for

         What is a eutherians, and how is reproduction accomplished, young cared for, length of development different from the monotremes and marsupials

o       Mammal Populations

         What are density dependent factors

         What are density independent factors